Telescopefish are small, deep-sea aulopiform fish comprising the small family Giganturidae. The two known species are within the genus Gigantura. Though rarely captured, they are found in cold, deep tropical to subtropical waters worldwide.
The common name of these fish is related to their bizarre, tubular eyes. The genus name Gigantura refers to the Gigantes, a race of giants in Greek mythology—coupled with the suffix oura, meaning “tail”, thus Gigantura refers to the greatly elongated, ribbon-like lower half of the tailfin that may comprise over half of the total body length.
Telescopefish are presumed to be solitary, active predators, frequenting the mesopelagic to bathypelagic zones of the water column, from 500 to. 3,000 m. By using their tubular, large-lensed eyes—which are adapted for optimal binocular light collection, at the expense of lateral vision—telescopefish are likely able to spy their prey’s weak bioluminescence from a distance, as well as (by looking skyward) resolve the outlined silhouettes of prey against the gloom above. Their eyes may also help telescopefish to better judge distance of prey; these visual adaptations are typical of deep-sea fish (barrel-eye, tube-eye). Common prey include bristlemouths, lanternfish, and barbeled dragonfish. Owing to the telescopefishes’ highly extensile jaws and distensible stomachs, they are able to swallow prey larger than themselves; this is also a common adaptation to life in the lean depths (sabertooth fish, black seadevil).
Much less is known of their reproductive habits. They are presumed to be nonguarding pelagic spawners, releasing eggs and sperm indiscriminately into the water. The fertilized eggs are buoyant and become incorporated into the zooplankton, wherein they and the larvae remain—likely at much shallower depths than the adults—until metamorphosis into juvenile or adult form.