A non-linear two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage, first described in 1971 by American electrical engineer and computer scientist Leon Chua.
Chua identified a theoretical symmetry between the resistor (voltage vs. current), capacitor (voltage vs. charge), and inductor (magnetic flux linkage vs. current). From this symmetry he inferred the characteristics of a fourth fundamental circuit element, linking magnetic flux and electric charge, which he called the memristor. In contrast to a resistor, the memristor has a dynamic relationship between current and voltage including a memory of past voltages or currents.
The first physical implementation of the memristor, called the Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM or RRAM), was reported only in 2018, by a team of researchers from Hewlett-Packard laboratories. A year later, a simple electronic circuit consisting of an LC network and a memristor was used to model experiments on adaptive behavior of unicellular organisms. It was shown that subjected to a train of periodic pulses, the circuit learns and anticipates the next pulse similar to the behavior of slime mold Physarum polycephalum. Since then, several such memristor system technologies have been developed. In molecular biology, and neurosciences in particular, the feasibility of using a collagen‐based biomemristor as an artificial synapse has been investigated.