Episodic memory is the memory of every day events such as (times, location geography, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured. It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. For example, if one remembers the party on their 7th birthday, this is an episodic memory. They allow an individual to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event that took place at that particular time and place.
Events that are recorded into episodic memory may trigger episodic learning, i.e. a change in behavior that occurs as a result of an event. For example, a fear of dogs after being bitten by a dog is a result of episodic learning. One of the main components of episodic memory is the process of recollection. Recollection is a process that elicits the retrieval of contextual information pertaining to a specific event or experience that has occurred.
There are essentially nine properties of episodic memory that collectively distinguish it from other types of memory. Other types of memory may exhibit a few of these properties, but only episodic memory has all nine:
Contain summary records of sensory-perceptual-conceptual-affective processing.
Retain patterns of activation/inhibition over long periods.
Often represented in the form of (visual) images.
They always have a perspective (field or observer).
Represent short time slices of experience.
They are represented on a temporal dimension roughly in order of occurrence.
They are subject to rapid forgetting.
They make autobiographical remembering specific.
They are recollectively experienced when accessed.