Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program

Olmec Colossal Heads

ADDPMP042

The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mesoamerica following a progressive development in Soconusco. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. It has been speculated that the Olmecs derive in part from neighboring Mokaya or Mixe–Zoque.

Olmec Colossal Heads - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program

The Olmec colossal heads are stone representations of human heads sculpted from large basalt boulders. They range in height from 1.17 to 3.4 metres. The heads date from at least 900 BC and are a distinctive feature of the Olmec civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. All portray mature individuals with fleshy cheeks, flat noses, and slightly crossed eyes; their physical characteristics correspond to a type that is still common among the inhabitants of Tabasco and Veracruz.

The backs of the monuments often are flat. The boulders were brought from the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas mountains of Veracruz. Given that the extremely large slabs of stone used in their production were transported over large distances (over 150 kilometres (93 mi)), requiring a great deal of human effort and resources, it is thought that the monuments represent portraits of powerful individual Olmec rulers. Each of the known examples has a distinctive headdress. The heads were variously arranged in lines or groups at major Olmec centres, but the method and logistics used to transport the stone to these sites remain unclear. They all display distinctive headgear and one theory is that these were worn as protective helmets, maybe worn for war or to take part in a ceremonial Mesoamerican ballgame.

The discovery of the first colossal head at Tres Zapotes in 1862 by José María Melgar y Serrano was not well documented nor reported outside of Mexico. The excavation of the same colossal head by Matthew Stirling in 1938 spurred the first archaeological investigations of Olmec culture. Seventeen confirmed examples are known from four sites within the Olmec heartland on the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Most colossal heads were sculpted from spherical boulders but two from San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán were re-carved from massive stone thrones. An additional monument, at Takalik Abaj in Guatemala, is a throne that may have been carved from a colossal head. This is the only known example from outside the Olmec heartland.

Dating the monuments remains difficult because of the movement of many from their original contexts prior to archaeological investigation. Most have been dated to the Early Preclassic period (1500–1000 BC) with some to the Middle Preclassic (1000–400 BC) period. The smallest weigh 6 tons, while the largest is variously estimated to weigh 40 to 50 tons, although it was abandoned and left uncompleted close to the source of its stone.

Peter Cain's Cars painting series - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP089
Peter Cain's Cars painting series
Seattle Kingdome Demolition - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP173
Seattle Kingdome Demolition
Autumn Evening - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP384
Autumn Evening
The Damned Cast Into Hell - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP040
The Damned Cast Into Hell
Premier League Tattoos - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP221
Premier League Tattoos
Fires of Kuwait - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP547
Fires of Kuwait
Catacanthus - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP251
Catacanthus
The cone of plausibility - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP084
The cone of plausibility
Angie Sanclemente Valencia - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP471
Angie Sanclemente Valencia
Luecke Farm - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP204
Luecke Farm
Synchronicity - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP373
Synchronicity
Cortinarius Violaceus - © Attention Deficit Disorder Prosthetic Memory Program
ADDPMP439
Cortinarius Violaceus

You are using an outdated browser.
Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.